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A Concise Encyclopedia of Legal Herbs and Chemicals with Psychoactive Properties

by Adam Gottlieb, 20th Century Alchemist

This book is not intended to promote or encourage the possession, use,
or manufacture of any illegal substances. The material herein is
presented for reference and informational purposes only.
The laws applicable to the drugs described herein may change.
Remember -- even legal drugs may be dangerous. Consult your physician
before consuming any drugs.

For wholesale orders and inquiries contact Merchandising Service of
America, Inc., 417 North 3rd Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19123.
For individual copies of other books by the 20th Century Alchemist,
write to:

Twentieth Century Alchemist
P.O. Box 3684
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266

(C) 1973 20th Century Alchemist


Sacramental Herbs from


The materials discussed in this book are legal despite the fact
that they have psychotropic properties. Some are far more potent than
many controlled substances. They have not been designated as illegal
by any state or federal codes, because they are relatively obscure and
have never been subjected to abuse. Although chemicals such as
mescaline and lysergic acid amide are controlled by Title 21 of the
United States Code (1970 edition), their plant sources (except for
ergot and peyote) are not so controlled. It is therefore legal to
possess San Pedro cactus, morning glory seeds, Hawaiian wood rose,
etc., as long as there is no indication that they are intended for
other than normal horticultural or ornamental purposes. The materials
listed here are legal at the time of this writing. They may be
outlawed at any future date. It may be of some interest to some
readers that the Church of the Tree of Life has declared as its
religious sacraments most saubstances in this book. Because these
substances were legal at the time of the Church's inception and
incorporation, their use cannot be denied to members through any
future legislation without directly violating the Constitution's
guarantee of religious freedom. Those interested should send a
stamped self-addressed envelope to the Church of the Tree of Life, 405
Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94133.
Although there exist both state and federal laws against Psilocybe
mushrooms and peyote, we have included these in our book of legal
highs. We do so because of the glaring weaknesses in the legislation
regarding these. Peyote is allowed to members of the Native American
Church, because it was in use by the Plains Americans as a religious
sacrament long before the caucasian immigrants and their progeny
devised laws against it. Even today, a number of legitimate cactus
nurseries still ship cuttings and seeds of this cactus to all parts of
the country with apparent impunity.
Many species of psilocybin-bearing mushroom grow wild throughout
most parts of the United States, and can in no way be controlled.
Since the original publication of this book, there has been a virtual
mushroom revolution. Head shops and mail order houses now sell
complete kits for home cultivation of _Psilocybe cubensis_ (spores
included). The flagrant ignorance of the law-makers is reflected in
the fact that in Title 21 the alkaloid _psilocin_ is misspelled as
_psilocyn._ This small error is a product of the same mentality that
classified cocaine as a narcotic in the 1922 Amendment to the Narcotic
Drugs Import and Export Act and deliberately retains the error to this
The purpose of this book is to provide the user with concise
reference information on various legal psychotropic materials. These
include plant materials in their crude hebal form, and chemicals
either synthesized or extracted from natural minerals. For each item
there is a brief description of the material, the method of
preparation, dosage and use, analysis of active constituents, effects,
contraindications (side effects, dangers, etc.), and names of
commercial suppliers. The latter are given as letter codes. The
corresponding names and addresses are to be found in the section
titled "Suppliers." Because of increasing interest in horticulture of
psychotropic plants, sources of seeds and live plants are also given.
Some of the materials discussed are very dangerous and are
strongly disrecommended. They are included because many people have
already shown an interest in experimenting with them. We feel that it
is important to discuss them while clearing indicating their dangers.
Although we feel confident in the accuracy of the information in
this guide, we can in no way assume responsibility for the experiences
of persons following these data for personal drug use.
This book is intended as a contribution to the world of
information and general knowledge. It must not be construed as
encouragement or endorsement, by the author or publisher, of the use
of any of the materials herein described.


Salvia from



ADRENOCHROME SEMICARBAZONE -- 3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5,6-indolinedione
Material: Oxidized eniephrine (adrenaline) with semicarbazide.
Usage: 100 mg is thoroughly dissolved in just enough alcohol,
melted fat (butter), or vegetable oil and ingested. Because of its
poor solubility in water these must be used to aid absorption.
Effects: Physical stimulating, feeling of well-being, slight
reduction of thought processes.
Contraindications: None noted. Acts as a systemic hemostatic
preventing capillary bleeding during injury. Adrenochrome causes
chemically induced schizophrenia. Its semicarbazone does not.
Supplier: CS.

ALPHA-CHLORALOSE -- alpha-D-glucochloralose.
Material: Synthetic chemical prepared by reacting chloral with
glucose under heat.
Usage: 350-500 mg orally.
Effects: Euphoriant affecting CNS in a manner similar to PCP
(phencyclidine), accompanied with mental changes like those from
smoking hashish.
Contraindications: Although a central depressant, in some
individuals it may cause nervousness. Less toxic than PCP or chloral.
Dangerous if taken with even small amounts of alcohol (even beer).
May cause convulsions.
Supplier: CS.

ASARONE -- 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-propenylbenzene or 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-
Material: A chemical related to mescaline and the amphetamines
found in the roots of sweet flag (_Acorus calamus_) and _Asarum_ spp.
It is chemically the precusor of TMA-2 (2,4,5-trimethoxy-a-methyl-4,5-
methylenedioxyphenylethylamine), a hallucinogen with 18 times the gram
potency of mescaline. Asarone is converted to TMA-2 in the body by
aminization which takes place shortly after ingestion.
Usage: 45-350 mg orally on empty stomach. Individual sensitivity
varies widely.
Effects: Simultaneous stimulant, hallucinogen, and sedative. One
or another of these traits may be more pronounced depending upon the
dose and the individual. CNS stimulant, antispasmatic.
Contraindications: Should not be taken with MAO inhibitors.
Supplier: CS.

Material: Sulfate of tropane alkaloid found in belladonna,
datura, and several other solaneceous plants.
Usage: 0.5-5 mg orally.
Effects: Competitive acetylcholine inhibitor at receptor site
(postganglionic junction). Does not prevent acetylcholine liberation.
Hallucinogen, similar to scopolamine, but producing more excitement
and less stupor. Potentiates other psychotropics, including opium,
cannabis, harmala alkaloids, mescaline.
Contraindications: Highly toxic. Side effects include dryness
and soreness of mucous membranes, blurred vision, urinary retention,
severe hallucinations, retrograde amnesia lasting several hours to
several days. Not recommended without expert supervision. Possible
brain damage from large amounts.
Supplier: CR.

BELLADONNA -- Deadly Nightshade. _Atropa belladonna_ L. Family
Solanaceae (Potato family).
Material: Leaves and roots of perennial herb found in wooded
hills and shaded areas of central and southern Europe, southwest Asia,
and Algeria, and naturalized in USA.
Usage: Crushed dried leaves 30-200 mg or root 30-120 mg taken
orally or smoked.
Active Constituents: Atropine, scopolamine, and other tropanes.
Leaves containe 0.3-0.5% total alkaloids, roots 0.4-0.7%.
Effects: Hallucinogen, hypnotic, anticholinergic.
Contraindications: Extremely toxic. Even moderate doses could be
fatal. Root contains apoatropine which can be lethal even in small
amounts, especially when taken orally. Use not recommended. See
Supplier: Seeds RCS.

BETEL NUT -- _Areca catechu._ Family Palmaceae (Palm family).
Material: The large seed of this Asian palm tree.
Usage: It is wrapped in the leaf of the betel pepper (_Piper
chavica betel_) and sprinkled with burnt lime, catechu gum from the
Malayan acacia tree (_Acacia catechu_) and nutmeg, cardamom or other
species. This morsel is placed in the mouth and sucked on for several
Active Constituents: Arecoline (methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-
methylnicotinate), a votalite oil, is released from the nut by action
of saliva and time. Betel leaf contains chavicol, allylpyrocathechol,
chavibetol and cadinene.
Effects: Arecoline is a central nervous system stimulant. It
increases respiration and decreases the work load of the heart. Betel
leaf has mild stimulating properties.
Contraindications: Excessive arecoline from immoderate use or
from unripe nuts can cause dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, and
convulsions. Frequent use stains mouth, gums, and teeth deep red
(caused by catechu gum). Long-term overuse of betel nut is said to
weaken sexual potency.
Supplier: Areca nuts and betel leaves, MGH; young palms, RCS.

BROOM -- (_Genista,_ _Cytisus,_ _Spartium_ spp.). Family Leguminosae
(Bean family).
Material: Blossoms of any of several species including Canary
Island broom (Genista canariensis), Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius),
and Spanish broom (Spartium junceum).
Usage: Blossoms are collected,
aged in a sealed jar for 10 days, dried, and rolled into cigarettes.
Smoke is inhailed and held.
Active Constituents: Cytisine (a toxic pyridine).
Effects: One cigarette produces relaxed feelings for 2 hours.
More causes deeper relaxation and longer-lasting effects (4-5 hours).
Relaxation is deepest during 2 hours and is followed by mental
alertness and increased awareness of color without hallucinations.
Contraindications: Usually no undesirable side effects or
hangover. Some persons experience mild headache immediately after
smoking. Broom flowers are extremely toxic when ingested. Has heart-
stimulating properties like digitalis.
Supplier: Common in parks and gardens. Dried broom, MGH; viable
seeds and plants, RCS.

CABEZA DE ANGEL -- _Calliandra anomala._ Family Leguminosae (Bean
Material: Resins of shrub with feathery, crimson flowers found in
level or mountainous places and near streams in southern Mexico and
Guatemala; sometimes cultivated as ornamental in California.
Usage: Formerly used by Aztecs. Incisions made in bark, resins
collected after several days, dried, pulverized, mixed with ash, and
Active Constituents: Unidentified.
Effects: Hypnotic, induces sleep. Also used medicinally for
dysyntery, swellings, fever, and malaria.
Contraindications: None known.
Supplier: Seeds and cuttings, RCS (inquire).

CALAMUS -- Sweet flag, rat root (_Acorus calamus_). Family Araceae
(Arum family).
Material: Roots of tall, fragrant, sword-leaved plant found in
marshes and borders of ponds and streams in Europe, Asia, and North
America from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to Florida and Texas.
Usage: Roots are collected in late autumn or spring, washed,
voided of root fibres and dried with moderate heat. Root may be
chewed or broken up and boiled as a tea. Doses range from 2 to 10
inches of root. Root deteriorates with age. Usually inactive after 1
year. Store closed in cool dry place.
Active Constituents: Asarone and beta-asarone.
Effects: A piece of dried root the thickness of a pencil and
about 2 inches long provides stimulating and buoyant feelings. A
piece 10 inches long acts as a mind alterant and hallucinogen. (See
Contraindications: The FDA frowns upon the sale and use of
calamus and has issued directives to certain herb dealers not to sell
it to the public. An FDA directive is simply a polite word for a
threat of hassling without a law to back it. At present there are no
laws against calamus. Some experiments have indicated that excessive
amounts of calamus oil can increase the tumor rate in rats. Many of
the Cree Indians of Northern Alberta chew calamus root for oral
hygiene and as a stimulating tonic. They apparently suffer no
unpleasant side effects. In fact, those who use it seem to be in
better general health than those who do not.
Supplier: Dried root, MGH; viable root, RCS, GBR.

CALEA -- _Calea zacatechichi._ Family Compositae (Sunflower family).
Material: Leaves of a shrub from central Mexico and Costa Rica.
Usage: 1 oz. of crushed dried leaves is steeped in 1 pt. water or
extracted into alcohol. Tea is drunk slowly. A cigarette of the
leaves may be smoked to increase the effect.
Active Constituents: Alkaloids have not been found in calea.
Psychoactive components uncertain but believed to be in aromanic and
bitter principle.
Effects: Feelings of repose after 30 minutes with increased
awareness of heart and pulse. One oz. clarifies mind and senses.
Larger amounts may induce hallucinations.
Contraindications: None known.
Supplier: Must be procured in Mexico. Oaxaca marketplace.

CALIFORNIA POPPY -- _Eschscholtzia californica._ Family Papaveraceae
(Poppy family).
Material: Leaves, flowers, and capsules of common wildflower.
Usage: Materials are dried and smoked.
Active Constituents: Opium-related alkaloids: protopine,
chelerythrine, sanguinarine, alpha- and beta-homochelidonine, and
several glucosides.
Effects: Very mild marijuana-like euphoria from smoking last 20-
30 minutes. Concentrated extract of plant may be more potent when
ingested or smoked.
Contraindications: No apparent side effects. Not habit-forming.
Appears to be ineffective when used again within 24 hours.
Supplier: Grows wild (protected by California law; misdemeanor,
fine for plucking). Seeds, B, FM, G, NK, RCS.

CATNIP -- _Nepeta catoria._ Family Labiatae (Mint family).
Material: Leaves.
Usage: Leaves are smoked alone or with tobacco in equal parts.
Also, extract is sprayed on tobacco or other smoking material.
Active Constituents: Metatabilacetone, nepatalactone, nepetalic
Effects: Mild marijuana-like euphoria, more intense and longer-
lasting with tobacco.
Contraindications: No harmful side effects known. Tobacco is
harmful and addicting.
Supplier: MGH or pet stores. Extract in aerosol from pet stores.
Viable seeds; B, FM, G, NK, RCS.

CHICALOTE -- Also called Prickly Poppy. _Argemone mexicana._ Family
Papaveraceae (Poppy family).
Material: Seeds and golden sap from unripe capsules of prickly-
leaved, yellow flowered perennial found in dry fields and roadsides of
southwestern USA and Mexico.
Usage: Capsule is pierced or opened, sap collected, dried,
smoked, or ingested like opium.
Active Constituents: Protopine, berberine (morphine-related
alkaloids), and several isoquinilines.
Effects: Sedative, analgesic, and euphoriant. Mild
hallucinogenic effects from seeds.
Contraindications: None known from discreet use. Continued use
can aggravate glaucoma and cause edema or dropsy.
Supplier: Viable seeds, RCS.

CHODAT; HSIAO-TS'AO -- _Polygala sibirica_; _P. tenuifolia._ Family
Polygalaceae (Milkwort family).
Material: Yellow-brown roots with acrid-sweet taste, from plant
native to temperate Asia (northern China and Japan).
Usage: 1 tbsp. brewed as tea or powdered and combined with other
herbs. Taken daily for several weeks.
Active Constituents: Senegin (7% of dried weight).
Effects: Many medicinal uses. Used in Taoist medicine to improve
memory and mental powers.
Contraindications: None known. Too much may induce vomiting.
Supplier: This when available, or related speices _P. senega,_

COLORINES -- _Erythrina flabelliformis_ and other species. Family
Leguminosae (Bean family).
Material: Bright red beans of woody shrubs or trees found in
southwestern USA, Mexico, and Guatemala.
Usage: 1/4-1/2 seed is chewed and swallowed.
Active Constituents: Undetermined toxic indole and
Effects: Stupor and hallucinations.
Contraindications: Extremely toxic. Not recommended.
Supplier: Grows wild in flat, dry areas.

DAMIANA -- _Turnera diffusa._ Family Turneraceae.
Material: Fragrant leaves of shrub found in tropical America,
Texas, and California.
Usage: 2 tbsp. leaves simmered in 1 pt. water. Tea is drunk at
same time as pipeful of leaves is smoked.
Active Constituents: Undetermined principle in oily fraction of
Effects: Mild aphrodisiac and marijuana-like euphoria lasting 1-
1.5 hours. Regular, moderate use has tonic effect on sexual organs.
Contraindications: Smoke harsh on lungs, best used in water-pipe.
Tea has slightly bitter taste; honey may be added. Some say excessive
long-term use may be toxic to liver.

DILL -- _Amethum graveolens._ Family Ubelliferae (Carrot family).
Material: Oil from seeds.
Usage: Oil is ingested.
Active Constituents: Dillapiole (non-amine precursor of 2,3-
dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine [DMMDA-2]).
Effects and contraindications: See PARSLEY.
Supplier: Spice section of grocery stores; herb dealers, MGH.
Viable seeds; B, FM, G, NK, RCS.

DONANA -- _Coryphanta macromeris._ Family Cactaceae (Cactus family).
Material: Small, spiny cactus from northern Mexico and southern
Usage: Spines are removed and 8-12 fresh or dried cacti are
consumed on an empty stomach. These may be chewed or crushed and
brewed for 1 hour as tea.
Active Constituents: Macromerine (L-alpha-3,4-diimethoxyphenyl-
beta-dimethylaminoethanol), a beta-phenethylamine 1/5 the gram potency
of mescaline.
Effects: Hallucinogen somewhat similar to mescaline.
Contraindications: Should not be taken in large doses with strong
MAO inhibitors. Otherwise none known.
Supplier: Cuttings, AHD; seeds, RCS, NMCR.

EPENA -- Also called yopo. _Virola calophylla._ Family Myristicaceae
(Nutmeg family).
Material: Red resin beneath the bark of tree found in rain
forests of Colombia and Brazil.
Usage: Resin scraped or boiled from bark, dried, pulverized,
mixed with ashes, and snuffed.
Active Constituents: N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-N,N-
dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), bufotenine.
Effects: Powerful instantaneous hallucinogen. Peak effects last
about 30 minutes. Color and size changes, dizziness. Aftereffects:
buoyant feelings, pleasant stimulating lasting several hours.
Contraindications: Excessive dose may cause headache and
confusion during first 5 minutes. May cause nausea on full stomach.
Physical pain or discomfort may be amplified during first 10 minutes.
MAO inhibitor.
Supplier: No local source of epena. DMT and bufotenine illegal
in USA. See 5-MeO-DMT.

Material: Synthetic tryptamine.
Usage: 25 mg is ingested.
Effects: Hallucinogen and stimulant; causes dream-like state
similar to psilocybin, but without drowsiness or lassitude.
Contraindications: MAO inhibitor. (See list of incompatible
Supplier: CS.
Note: Other methylated tryptamines with similar psychoactive
properties include: 6-fluoro-alpha-methyltrypta-5-methyltryptamine,
N-methyltryptamine, 5-methyltryptamine. The dosage, effects, and
contraindications are about the same for these as for the above. Some
of the non-methylated derivatives are also active. These include 5-
and 6-fluorotryptamine and 5- and 6-fluorotryptophan.

FLY AGARIC -- _Amanita muscaria._ Family Agaricaceae (Agaric family).
Material: Mushroom with red caps and white flakes found in birch
or pine forests during rainy season in north temperate zones of
eastern and western hemispheres.
Usage: Mushrooms are collected and dried in the sun or in oven at
200 degrees. No more than one medium-size mushroom should be taken
until individual's tolerance is determined.
Active Constituents: Muscimol; and ibotenic acid, which converts
muscimol upon drying. Some muscarine is also present but because of
its difficulty in passing the blood-brain barrier it is believed not
to be responsible for psychoactive effects.
Effects: Effects vary with individuals, source of mushroom, and
dose. The usual pattern is dizziness, twitching and possible nausea
after 30 minutes, followed by numbness of feet and twilight sleep for
2 hours, with colorful visions and intensified awareness of sounds.
After this, one may feel buoyant with great energy and strength.
Hallucinations and distortion of size are common. Entire experience
last about 5-6 hours. Muscimol is an hallucinogen which affects the
central nervous system. Ibotenic acid causes flushing of the skin and
lethargy. Muscarine is a highly toxic hallucinogen.
Contraindications: Before harvesting these or any mushrooms for
ingestion one should establish positive identification. Several
closely related amanita species are extremely toxic. These include
_A. pantherina,_ _A. virosa,_ _A. verna,_ and _A. phalloides_
(destroying angel). Large amounts of _A. muscaria_ can also be fatal.
Three mushrooms is the absolute maximum recommended.
Note: Most ingested muscimol is passed unaltered into the urine.
Siberian mushroom users make the practice of drinking this urine to
recycle the psychoactive materials.
Supplier: Must be gathered from nature.

GI'-I-SA-WA. _Lycoperdon marginatum_ and _L. mixtecorum._ Family
Material: Puffball fungus found at high altitudes in temperate
forests in Mexico.
Usage: Puffball and/or spores are ingested.
Active Constituents: Unidentified alkaloid.
Effects: Half-sleep state with non-visual hallucinations (voices,
echoes, and other sound).
Contraindications: None known.
Supplier: Some related species grow wild in USA.

GUARANA -- _Paullinia cupana_ HBK. Family Sapindaceae (Soapberry
Material: Seeds of woody liana from forests of Brazil.
Usage: Seeds are allowed to mold, are ground, mixed with cassava
flour and water to form paste, and dried in cylindrical shapes. For
use 1/2 tsp. is scraped from cylinder, dissolved in 1 cup hot water
with honey, and drunk.
Active Constituents: Caffeine 5% (2-1/2 times that of coffee).
Effects: Stimulant.
Contraindications: Long-term excessive use of caffeine may cause
nervousness, insomnia, habituation.
Supplier: MGH.

HARMINE -- 7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido (3,4-b) indole.
Material: Indole-based alkaloid found in several places including
_Banisteriopsis caapi_ (from which the South American hallucinogenic
brew yage is prepared), _Peganum harmala_ (Syrian rue), _Zygophyllum
fabago_ and _Passiflora incarnata._
Usage: 25-750 mg harmine (see effects) is ingested on an empty
stomach. In its hydrochloride form harmine may be snorted (20-200
mg). Injection dosges are smaller: SC 40-70 mg, IV 10-30 mg.
Absorbed poorly through stomach. Small doses (20-200 mg) effective
intrabuccally and sublingually.
Effects: Harmine and related alkaloids are serotonin antagonists,
hallucinogen, CNS stimulants, and short-term MAO inhibitors (100 x MAO
inhibition of improniazid but lasting only several hours). Small
doses (25-50 mg) act as mild and therapeutic cerebral stimulant,
sometimes producing drowsy or dreamy state for 1-2 hours. Larger
doses up to 750 mg may have hallucinogenic effect, the intensity of
which varies widely with the individual. Doses of 25-250 mg taken
with LSD or psiolcybin alter the quality of the experience of the
latter. Telepathic experiences have been reported with this
Contraindications: Harmine is a brief MAO inhibitor. It should
not be used with alcohol and certain foods and drugs (see list). When
snuffed, harmine may be slightly irritating to nasal passages. Large
amounts may depress CNS. Since individual sensitivity varies this may
occur with 250-750 mg.
Supplier: CS.
Note: Notes on other harmala alkaloids: Different harmala
alkaloids vary in potency. The equivalent of 10 mg harine is 50 mg
harmaline, 35 mg tetrahydraharman, 25 mg harmalol or harmol, 4 mg
methoxyharmalan. Harmal alkaloids are synergistic (mutually
potentiating) and are therefore most effective when combined in an
appropriate balance. Tropines (belladonna alkaloids) also potentiate
harmals. Harmol and harmalol (phenols) in overdoses can cause
progressive CNS paralysis.

HAWAIIAN WOOD ROSE, BABY -- _Argyreia nervosa._ Family Convolvulaceae
(Bindweed family).
Material: Seeds within round pods of climbing plant found in
Asian and Hawaiian forests.
Usage: Seeds are removed form pods, white layer is scraped or
singed from seed coat and seeds are ground and consumed or soaked in
water, strained, and drunk. Dose 4-8 seeds.
Active Constituents: D-lysergic acid amine and related compounds.
Effects: LSD-like experience with extreme lassitude. Nausea may
be experienced during first hour or two. Total experience lasta bout
6 hours. Tranquil feelings may continue for 12 or more hours
Contraindications: Pregnant women or persons with history of
liver disorders should not take lysergic acid amindes.
Supplier: MGH.

HAWAIIAN WOOD ROSE, LARGE -- _Merremia tuberosa._ Family
Convolvulaceae (Bindweed family).
Material: Large, black seeds within lantern-like pod of Hawaiian
Usage, Effects, and Contraindications: Similar to baby wood rose.
Dose 4-8 large seeds.
Supplier: RCS.

HELIOTROPE -- _Valeriana officinalis._ Family Valerianaceae.
Material: Roots of fairly common garden plant.
Usage: 1/2 oz. boiled for 5 minutes in 1 pt. water, strained, and
Active Constituents: Chatinine, valerine (alkaloids), valeric
(propylacetic) acid.
Effects: Tranquilizer and sedative.
Contraindications: Has unpleasant smell but tolerable taste. May
add honey.
Supplier: Herb, MGH; seeds, RCS.

HENBANE -- _Hyoscyamus niger_ L. Family Solanaceae (Potato family).
Material: Various parts of hairy, sticky biennial or annual found
in waste places, roadsides, and sandy areas of Europe (sometimes USA).
Usage: Leaves and seeds are smoked in India and Africa for
inebriating effect. Brew made by boiling crushed roots.
Active Constituents: Hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and other
Effects: Hallucinogen and sedative. Hyoscyamine is similar to
atropine but more powerful in its effects upon the peripheral nervous
Contraindications: Same as thornapple. European sorcerers of
middle ages claimed that excessive use can cause permament insanity.
Supplier: Must find in habitat.

HOPS -- _Humulus lupulus._ Family Cannabinaceae.
Material: Flaky-textured and pleasantly bitter fruiting parts of
perennial vine used as a flavoring in beer brewing.
Usage: May be smoked like marijuana, extracted into alcohol or
steeped in water (1 oz./pt.).
Active Constituents: Lupuline (a resinous powder chemically
related to THC).
Effects: Sedative: When smoked gives mild marijuana-like high
with sedative qualities.
Contraindications: Excessive use over a long period may cause
dizziness, mental stupor, and mild jaundice symptoms in some
Note: Several popular books on the cultivation of cannabis have
pointed out that hops vines may be grafted to marijuana root stocks.
The result is a plant which appears to be a normal hops vine but which
contains the active constituents of marijuana. This means that people
can raise their own marijuana disguised as hops and not be discovered
by law agents. Because of this the government has asked hope growers
to refuse to sell hops cuttings to the general public. There are no
laws against hops but they are now difficult to obtain. Hops are
mostly propagated from root cuttings. Viable seeds are rare.
Supplier: Dried hops, MGH; viable seeds, RCS; viable root, WP.

HYDRANGEA -- _Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora._ Family
Material: Leaves of common garden shrub.
Usage: Leaves are dried and smoked. One cigarette only.
Active Constituents: Hydrangin, saponin, and cyanogenic
Effects: Mild marijuana-like high, subtoxic inebriation.
Contraindications: Too mujch may produce more cyanide than the
system can metabolize. Not recommended.
Supplier: Live plants; nurseries, RCS.

INDIAN SNAKEROOT -- _Rauwolfia serpentina._ Family Aponcynaceae
(Dogbane family).
Material: Root of shrub native to India.
Usage: 50-150 mg of root is chewed and ingested.
Active Constituents: Reserpine, rescinnamine, yohimbine,
ajmaline, serpentine (indole alkaloids).
Effects: Lowers blood pressure, tranquilizes mind without causing
stupor and ataxia. Effects are delayed for several days to several
weeks because reserpine must be converted in the body into secondary
substances. Used medicinally to treat insanity and by holy men to
produce states of tranquility conducive to meditation. Effects last
for several days.
Contraindications: See RESERPINE.
Supplier: MGH (inquire). See RESERPINE and RESCINAMINE.

INTOXICATING MINT -- _Lagochilus inebrians._ Family Libiatae (Mint
Materials: Leaves of Central Asian shrub.
Usage: Leaves are dried and steeped to make tea.
Active Constituents: Unidentified polyhydric alcohol.
Effects: Tranquilizer, intoxicant, mild hallucinogen.
Contraindications: None known.
Supplier: MGH (inquire first).

IOCHROMA -- _Iochroma_ spp. Family Solanaceae (Potato family).
Material: Leaves of shrub of small tree with tubular flowers
(purple, blue, scarlet, or white) found in wooded areas of Peru,
Chile, and Colombia (especially Andean highlands); also cultivated in
gardens in USA.
Usage: Leaves are smoked or made into tea.
Active Constituents: Unidentified (probably tropanes).
Effects: Hallucinogen.
Contraindications: Insufficient data. Caution advised with all
tropane-bearing materials.
Supplier: Cutting, RCS.

JUNIPER -- _Juniperas macropoda._ Family Cupressaceae (Cypress
Materials: Leaves and branches of bush or tree found in
northwestern Himalayan area. Berries of some juniper species are used
in gin.
Usage: Leaves and branches are spread upon embers of fire.
Person places blanket over head while inhaling smoke.
Active Constituents: Psychotropic agent uncertain.
Nonacosanol,beta-D-glucoside of beta-sitosterol, sugiol (a diterpene
ketone), and several glycosides and aglycones have been isolated.
Effects: Intoxicant, hallucinogen, and deliriant. Causes user to
move about in agitated, dizzy manner for several minutes, then
collapse into hypnotic trance. Experience lasts about 30 minutes
during which user may experience visions of communication with
supernatural entities.
Contraindication: Not specifically known, but obviously not for
frequent use. Probably hepatotoxic.
Supplier: Berries, MGH; plants (some species), RCS, nurseries.

KAVA KAVA -- _Piper methysticum._ Family Piperaceae (Pepper family).
Material: Root pulp and lower stems of tall perennial shrub from
South Pacific islands, Hawaiian Islands, and New Guinea.
Usage: In the islands two methods are used. If dried kava roots
are simply made into a tea, the water-soluble components are released
and it acts as a mild stimulating tonic. If materials are first
chewed, then spit into a bowl and mixed with coconut milk, powerful
narcotic resins are released in emulsion. Those who do not wish to
pre-chew the root may do either of the following for the same result:
(1) 1 oz. pulverized or finely ground kava is mixed with 10 oz. water
or coconut milk, 2 tbsp. coconut oil or olive oil, and 1 tbsp. lcithin
and blended in an osterizer until liquid takes on milky appearance.
Serves 2-4 persons. (2) Extract resins with ispropyl (rubbing)
alcohol in heat bath, remove solvents by evaporation. Redissolve in
just enough warmed brandy, rum, or vodka. Honey may be added to
sweeten. A small cordial glass per person should be enough. The
first method emulsifies the resins, the second method dissolves them
in alcohol. The latter is the more potent method because alcohol
swiftly carries resins into the system.
Active Constituents: Kawain, dihydrokawain, methysticin,
dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and dihydroyangonin (resinous alpha
Effects: Pleasant stimulating after 30 minutes (sooner in
alcohol). After another 30 minutes euphoric and lethargic sedative
effects are felt but with unimpaired mental alertness. Depresses
spinal activity, not cerebral activity. After a time, one may desire
sleep. Total experience lasts 2-3 hours. Aftereffects: pleasant,
relaxed feelings. No hangover.
Contraindications: Generally nontoxic. If fresh root or alcohol
extract is used excessively for several months, it may become habit-
forming and cause yellowing, rashes, scaliness or ulcers of skin,
diarrhea, emaciation, loss of appetite, reddening and weakening of the
eyes. These symptoms disappear rapidly when kava intake is stopped or
reduced. These conditions do not occur with normal use (once per week
in islands). Used normally, kava is stimulating to appetite and
generally beneficial.
Supplier: MGH.

KHAT -- _Catha edulis._ Family Celastraceae (Burningbush family).
Material: Fresh leaves and stems of shrub or three found in
wooded areas of Ethiopia. Now cultivated in neighboring lands.
Usage: Fresh leaves are chewed or brewed as tea.
Active Constituents: Norpseudoephedrine, vitamin C (which helps
to counteract some bad effects of the drug).
Effects: Stimulation, euphoria, mental clarity, followed
occasionally by hallucinations terminating in drowsiness, sleep, or
depression. Respiratory and pulse rate increase.
Contraindications: Initial use sometimes accompanied by
dizziness, lassitude, epigastric pain, decreased cardiovascular
capacity. Prolonged use may result in cardiac diseaes, appetite loss,
reduction in sexual drive, delirium tremens.
Supplier: Cuttings, RCS (inquire).

KOLA NUTS -- _Cola nitida._ Family Sterculiaceae (Cacao family).
Material: Seeds of African tree.
Usage: Seeds are chewed or ground and boiled in water, 1
Active Constituents: Caffeine 2%, theobromine, kolanin (a
Effects: Stimulant and economizer of muscular and nervous
energies. Aids combustion of fats and carbohydrates, reduces
combustion of nitrogen and phosphorus in the body.
Contraindications: Long-term excessive use of caffeine may cause
nervousness, insomnia, habituation.
Supplier: MGH.

KUTHMITHI -- _Withania somnifera._ Family Solanaceae (Potato family).
Material: Root-bark of shrub found in open places and disturbed
areas of South Africa, tropical Africa and India. Other parts of
plant used medicinally as local pain reliever, leaves to rid lice,
fruit to make soap.
Usage: Root-bark boiled as infusion.
Active Constituents: Somniferine, withaferin, and other
Effects: Sedative.
Contraindications: No apparent undesirable side effects. Given
safely to infants in North Africa.
Supplier: Cuttings, RCS (inquire).

LION'S TAIL -- _Leonotis leonurus_ R. Br. Family Labiatae (Mint
Material: Resins from leaves of tall South African perennial
shrub found in gardens of warmer parts of U.S.
Usage: Dark green resin is scraped or extracted form leaves and
flower parts and added to tobacco or other smoking mixtures. Dried
leaves may also be smoked or chewed.
Active Constituents: Unidentified resinous materials (possibly
Effects: Euphoric, marijuana-like experience.
Contraindications: Persistent use may lead to habituation (same
degree as tobacco).
Supplier: Some Southern California nurseries; RCS (inquire).

LOBELLA -- _Lobelia inflata._ Family Lobeliaceae.
Material: Leaves, stems, and seeds of North American plant
sometimes called Indian tobacco.
Usage: May be smoked or steeped -- 1 tbsp./pt. water.
Active Constituents: Lobeline -- 2-[6-(beta-hydroxy-phenethyl)-1-
methyl-2-piperidyl] acetophenone -- and related alkaloids.
Effects: When smoked, produces mild marijuana-like euphoria and
improves mental clarity. Tea acts simultaneously as a stimulant and
relaxant. Lesser amounts tend to act as stimulant; larger amounts as
a relaxant. Also, may cause tingling body sensations and altered
mental state.
Contraindications: Has acrid taste, causes unpleasant, prickly
feelings in mouth and throat. May cause nauseea, vomiting, and
circulatory disturbances. Smoking may cause brief headache in persons
subjects to migraine.
Supplier: Herb and herbal seed, MGH; viable seed, RCS.

MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE -- _Catharanthus roseus,_ formerly _Vinca
rosea._ Family Apocynaceae (Dogbane family).
Material: Leaves of everblooming subshrub native to Madagascar,
now grown as ornamental throughout USA and found in Florida.
Usage: Dried leaves are smoked.
Active Constituents: Indole alkaloids resembling ibogaine:
akuammine, catahrosine, vindoline, vincristine, vinblastine,
Effects: Euphoria and hallucinations. Vincamine improves mental
ability in cerebrovascular disorders.
Contraindications: Causes immedate reduction of white corpuscles.
Excessive or prolonged use causes itching and burning skin, hair loss,
ataxia, and degeneration of muscle tissue. Strongly disrecommended.
Supplier: Plants, nurseries; viable seeds, RCS.

MANDRAKE -- _Mandragora officinarum._ L. Family Solanaceae (Potato
Material: Various parts especially parsnip-shaped root of
perennial plant found in fields and stony places of southern Europe.
Usage: Brew made from boiling crushed root.
Active Constituents: Scopolamine, hyoscyamine, mandragorine, and
other tropanes.
Effects: Hallucinations followed by deathlike trance and sleep.
Contraindications: Same as thornapple. Said to cause insanity.
Not recommended.
Supplier: Must be obtained in Europe.

MARABA -- _Kaempferia galanga_ L. Family Zingiberaceae (Ginger
Material: Rhizome of stemless herb found in New Guinea, India,
Malaya, and the Moluccas.
Usage: Rhizome chewed and ingested.
Active Constituents: Unidentified substance(s) in volatile oils
of rhizome.
Effects: Hallucinogen.
Contraindications: None known. Has long history of medicinal
Supplier: MGH (inquire).

MATE -- _Ilex paraguayensis._ Family Aquifoliaceae (Holly family).
Material: Leaves of small evergreen tree found near streams in
forests of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay.
Usage: Leaves steeped in hot water and drunk.
Active Constituents: Caffeine and other purines.
Effects: Stimulant. Not as upsetting to system as coffee or tea.
Contraindications: Long-term excessive use of caffeine may cause
nervousness, insomnia, habituation.
Supplier: MGH, health stores.

MESCAL BEANS -- _Sophara secundiflora._ Family Leguminosae (Bean
Material: Red bean of evergreen shrub found in Texas, New Mexico,
and northern Mexico.
Usage: 1/4 bean or less is roasted near a fire until it turns
yellow, ground to meal, chewed, and swallowed.
Active Constituents: Cytisine (a toxic pyridine).
Effects: Vomiting, intoxication, and increased heartbeat,
followed by 3 days of drowsiness or sleep.
Contraindications: Extremely toxic. Even just a little too much
(1/2 bean for some) may cause convulsions and death. Was used in
ritual by Plains Indians before they had peyote. Now it is no longer
Supplier: Grows wild on limestone hills. Viable seeds, RCS.

5-MeO-DMT -- 5-methoxy-n,n-dimethyltryptamine.
Material: Indole-based alkaloid found in seeds, pods, bark, and
resins of several South American trees, including _Piptadenia
peregrina_ and _Virola calophylla,_ used in the snuffs yopo, epena,
and parica.
Usage: 3.5-5 mg are places on top of parsley flakes in a small-
bowl hash pipe and smoked in one inhalation, or broken into fine
particles and snuffed.
Effects: Overwhelming psychedelic effects occur almost instantly,
softening to a pleasant LSD-like sensation after 2-3 minutes. Changes
in perception may occur including brightening of colors and
macroscopia (size changes). Total experience last 20-30 minutes.
Contraindications: Some persons experience dizziness,
disorientation, and sensations of pressure during first 2-3 minutes,
especially with larger doses. If this occurs it is best to try to
relax and flow with the experience because it will quickly pass and
give way to more comfortable feelings. One should not take 5-MeO-DMT
on a full stomach or when feeling bloated, as pressure and nausea may
occur. The drug leaves no hangover or undesirable aftereffects. One
usually feels pleasant stimulated for several hours afterwards. If
taken too soon before retiring, it may interfere with sleep. Because
of intense initial effects one should never use this substance while
driving. Very large doses, sufficient to cause heavy blood rush to
the head, may rupture weak capillaries in the brain. Continued to
excess this might eventually impair mental functions. MAO inhibitor
(see list of dangerous combinations).
Supplier: CS.

MORMON TEA -- _Ephedra nevadensis._ Family Gnetaceae.
Material: Above-ground parts of leafless desert shrub found in
American Southwest.
Usage: 1/2 oz./1 pt. water boiled 10 minutes.
Active Constituents: D-norpseudoephedrine. (Note: In contrast
to the Asian species _E. equisetina_ and _E. sinica,_ _E. nevadensis_
contains little or not ephedrine.)
Effects: Stimulant. Also relieves congestion and asthma.
Contraindications: No serious side effects known. May depress
appetite if used to excess.
Supplier: Dried herb, MGH; viable seed, RCS.

MORNING GLORY -- _Ipomoea violacea._ Family Convolvulaceae (Bindweed
Material: Seeds and to a lesser extent all other parts of plant
except roots. Strongest varieties are: Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates,
Flying Saucers, Wedding Bells, Blue Star, Summer Skies, and Badoh
Begro (Mexican variety).
Usage: 5-10 grams of seeds are thoroughly chewed and swallowed or
may be thoroughly ground and soaked in 1/2 cup water for half an hour,
strained and drunk.
Active constituents: D-lysergic acid amide and ergometrine.
Effects: LSD-like experience lasting about 6 hours.
Contraindications: Persons with history of hepatitis or other
liver disorders should not take lysergic acid amides. Ergometrine has
uterus-stimulating properties and should not be taken by pregnant
women. Some suppliers treat morning-glory seeds with poison to
discourage use as a mind alterant, or with methyl mercury to prevent
spoilage (symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea). If treated seeds are
planted, toxins are not transmitted to next generation. Some persons
wearing treated seeds as beads on bare skin have developed rash.
Supplier: Untreated seeds, MGH.

NUTMEG -- _Myristican fragrans._ Family Myristicaceae (Nutmeg
Material: Seed of tropical evergreen tree found in East and West
Usage: 5-20 grams of whole or ground nutmeg is ingested.
Active Constituents: Methylenedioxy-substituted compounds:
myristicin (non-amine precursor of 3-methoxy-4,5-
methylenedioxyamephatemine [MMDA]), elemicin, and safrole (non-amine
precursor of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine [MDA]). These and other
aromatic fractions combine synergistically to produce psychotropic
effect. Terpenes enhance absorption.
Effects: Possible nausea during first 45 minutes, followed in
several hours by silly feelings and giggling, and then dryness of
mouth and throat, flushing of skin and bloodshot eyes, heavy
intoxicated feeling, incoherent speech and impaired motor function.
This is followed by tranquil feelings, stupor with inability to sleep,
euphoria and twilight state dreams. Total experience lasts about 12
hours, followed by 24 hours of drowsiness and sleep.
Contraindications: May cause temporary constipation and
difficulty in urination. Nutmeg oils increase fat deposits on liver.
Safrole is carcinogenic and toxic to liver. Beneficial as spice or in
small amounts; not recommended as hallucinogen.
Supplier: Grocery stores; viable seeds, RCS.

OLOLUIQUE -- _Rivea corymbosa._ Family Convolvulaceae (Bindweed
Material: Seeds of vine found in mountains of southern Mexico.
Usage: 15 or more seeds are thoroughly ground and soaked in 1/2
cup water.
Active Constituents: D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and
turbicoryn (a crystalline glucoside).
Effects: LSD-like experience lasting about 6 hours, with relaxed
feelings afterwards. Nausea may be experience during first hour. D-
lysergic acid amide is a hallucinogen. Turbicoryn stimulates the CNS
and has anti-tension properties.
Contraindications: Persons with a history of liver disorders
should not take lysergic acid amides.
Supplier: Must be procured in Mexico.

PARSLEY -- _Petroselinum crispum._ Family Umbelliferae (Carrot
Material: Oil of seeds.
Usage: Ingested.
Active Constituents: Apiole (non-amine precursor of 2,5-
dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine [DMMDA]) and other
unidentified olefinic substance with an allyl side chain which is the
non-amine precursor of 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyamphetamine (Tetra MA).
Effects: Uncertain (stimulant-hallucinogen?). Useful as
stomachic in small doses.
Contraindications: Psychotropically effective doses toxic to
liver and harmful to kidneys. Not recommended.
Supplier: Herb dealers, MGH; viable seed, RCS, B, G, NK, FM.

PASSIONFLOWER -- _Passiflora incarnata._ Family Passifloraceae
(Passionflower family).
Material: Leaves and stems of perennial vine native to West
Indies and southern USA, now cultivated throughout world.
Usage: May be smoked, steeped as tea (1/2 oz./1 pt. boiled
water) or reduced to crude alkaloidal mix.
Active Constituents: Harmine and related alkaloids.
Approximately 1 g mixed harmal alkaloids per kg. Also several
unidentified alkaloids.
Effects: Smoked, very mild, short-lasting marijuana-like high.
Tea, tranquilizer and sedative. Harmala alkaloids are hallucinogens.
Contraindications: Other materials in crude alkaloid reduction
may cause nausea. Harmala alkaloids are short-term MAO inhibitors.
See list of dangerous combinations.
Supplier: Herb, MGH; seed and plants, RCS.

PEMOLINE -- 2-imino-5-phenyl-4-oxazolidinone.
Material: Hydantoin-group chemical prepared synthetically.
Usage: 20-50 mg orally.
Effects: Mental stimulant with very little CNS stimulant, lasting
6-12 hours.
Contraindications: No serious side effects. Insomnia may occur
if sufficient time is not allowed between taking permoline and
Supplier: CS.

PEMOLINE MAGNESIUM -- [2-imino-5-phenyl-4-oxazolidinonato(2)-]
Material: A complex from equimolar mixture of pemoline and
magnesium hydroxide under study in Abbott Laboratories as an adjunct
to learning and memory.
Usage: 50-100 mg taken orally each morning for 10-14 consecutive
days. The effects are cumulative. Results are most noticeable when
combined with high protein diet, abundant vitamin C and balanced B
complex intake, and adequate calcium and magnesium consumption. For
more pronounced and immediate effects as a cerebral and CNS stimulant,
200-500 mg of pemoline magnesium may be taken at once.
Effects: Larger dosage acts as a CNS stimulant and psychic
stimulant, improving mental faculties, especially memory, for 6-24
hours. Its effects are similar to the amphetamines without causing
dryness of mucous membrane tissues and cardiac stress. Smaller
consecutive doses act as mild CNS and psychic stimulant and accumulate
magnesium in cerebral synapses. Magngesium acts as a catalyst
conductor in the synapses of the brain's memory centers. Taken in
this manner magnesium pemoline may increase efficiency of memory up to
560% in both young persons and senile older people. After completing
the series these effects may last from several weeks to several
months, tapering gradually. Effects can be regained by taking booster
series when needed. It can be taken either while or while attempting
to recall learned material. Assists RNA formation in brain.
Contraindications: Large doses (or even smaller doses if taken
too soon before retiring) may interfere with sleep.
Supplier: CS, RX.

PIPILZINTZINTLI -- _Salvia divinorum._ Family Labiatae (Mint family).
Material: Leaves of plant found in southern Mexico. Also used
for same effect are leaves of _Coleus blumei_ and _C. pumila,_ common
house plants.
Usage: About 70 large fresh leaves are thoroughly chewed and
swallowed or crushed and soaked in 1 pt. water for 1 hour, strained,
and drunk. If osterizer is available leaves may be liquefied in
Active Constituents: Uncertain, believed to be an unstable
crystalline polyhydric alcohol.
Effects: Similar to psilocybin with colorful visual patterns, but
milder and lasting only 2 hours.
Contraindications: Some people experience nausea during first 1/2
hour; otherwise no unpleasant or harmful side effects known.
Supplier: _S. divinorum_ must usually be procured in Mexico. It
is extremely rare. The Church of the Tree of Life (405 Columbus
Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94133) has a large specimen, one of the few
existing in the USA. They will send a rooted cutting to anyone who
donates $100 or more to the church. Coleus plants may be bought in
any nursery; coleus seeds B, FM, G, NK, RCS.

PSILOCYBE MUSHROOMS -- _Psilocybe mexicana._ Family Agaricaceae
(Agaric family).
Material: Carpophores and nycelia of this mushroom, found in
southern Mexico and of other chemically related species (see below)
found in North and South America.
Usage: 4-20 fresh mushrooms are consumed on empty stomach.
Number depends upon size, species, time of harvest, and individual's
Active Constituents: Psilocybin and psilocin.
Effects: Musculare relaxation and mild visual changes during
first 15-30 minutes followed by giddiness, straying of concentration,
visual and auditory hallucinations, lassitude, and feelings of
disassociation without loss of awareness. Peak 1-1.5 hours after
ingestion. Total experience approximately 6 hours.
Contraindications: Taken too soon after food may cause nausea.
Mazatec Indians claim that constant use of these mushrooms over
extended period will accelerate aging process. One death (6-year-old
boy) was attributed to the ingestion of a large number of _P.
baeocystis,_ which contains baeocystin and nor-beaocystin. Normal use
by adults does not indicate toxicity.
Supplier: Many species may be found wild throughout USA and
Canada. Among them are: _Psilocybe baeocystis,_ _P. caerulescens_
(strongest variety), _P. caerulipes,_ _P. cubensis_ var.
_cyanescens,_ _P. cyanescens,_ _P. pellipes,_ _Conocybe cyanopess,_
_Copelandia cyanescens,_ _Panaeolus foenisecci,_ _P. subbaleatus,_
_Pholiotina cyanopoda._ Do not consume mushrooms gathered wild until
positively indentified by expert mycologist.

RESCINNAMINE -- 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl methyl reserpate.
Material: Indole-based alkaloid in _Rauwolfia serpentina._
Usage: 0.5-2.5 mg orally.
Effects: Hypotensive, sedative, tranquilizer similar to
Contraindications: Similar to reserpine but less severe.
Supplier: CS.

RESERPINE -- 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl methyl reserpate.
Material: Major active indole-based alkaloid in _Rauwolfia_ spp.
Usage: 0.05-2.5 mg orally.
Effects: Hypotensive, sedative, tranquilizer. Depletes serotonin
and norepinephrine in brain tissue. Delayed but prolonged effect.
Contraindications: Usually safe if not taken in overdoses or
excessively. Too much, or in sensitive individuals, may case nasal
stuffiness, diarrhea, slowed heartbeat, drowsiness, fatigue. Too
frequent use may cause weight gain. MAO inhibitiors interefere with
serotonin- and norepinephrine-depleting action of reserpine.
Supplier: CS, RX.

SAN PEDRO -- _Trichocereus pachanoi._ Family Cactaceae (Cactus
Material: Tall branching cactus from Peru and Ecuador.
Usage: A piece 3 inches in diameter by 3-6 inchest long is cut,
peeled and eaten (do not waste that which clings to the inside of the
skin as it is most potent), or instead of peeling, msh it or cut it
into small pieces and boil in 1 quart water for 2 hours, strain, and
drink slowly.
Active Constituents: Mescaline (1.2 g/kg fresh weight),
homoveratrylamine, 3-methoxytyramine.
Effects: Similar to peyote but more tranquil. Takes 1-1.5 hours
to come on; lasts about 6 hours.
Contraindications: Some people experience nausea from mescaline.
It is best to take mescaline, peyote, or San Pedro slowly over a
period of 45 minutes to avoid chemical shock to the system.
Supplier: Cuttings, AHD, NMCR; seeds, NMCR, RCS.

SASSAFRAS -- _Sassafras officinale albidum._ Family Laureaceae
(Laurel family).
Material: Aromatic root-bark of North American tree.
Usage: Brewed as tea (1 oz./1 pt. water). Oil fraction extracted
in alcohol or distilled. Safrole is not water-soluble. Starting dose
100-200 mg of extracted and dried oil.
Active Constituents: Safrole (non-amine precursor of MDA [3,4-
Effects: Tea in large doses acts as stimulant and induces
perspiration. Safrole (MDA) stimulant, hallucinogen; aphrodisiac in
large doses, euphoriant in small doses.
Contraindications: Safrole is toxic to liver (avoid repeated
use). Increases incidence of tumors in laboratory animals. Excessive
doses may cause vomiting, shock, aphasia, and death by central
paralysis of respiration. Normal use as tea is safe.
Supplier: Fresh root wild, eastern USA, collected in early spring
or autumn. Dried root, MGH; young trees, RCS.

Material: Hydrobromide salt of tropane alkaloid found in
belladonna, datura, and other solanaceous plants.
Usage: 0.5-5 mg orally on empty stomach.
Effects: CNS depressant, anticholinergic, sedative in small doses
(0.3-0.8 mg). Euphoriant, hallucinogen, and narcotic in larger doses.
Takes effect within 15 minutes; last 4-12 hours.
Contraindications: Dry mouth and mucous membranes, blurred
vision, difficulty swallowing, hot dry skin, headache, restless
fatigue. Must not be used by persons with cardiovascular disorders or
glaucoma. Excessive use may cause brain decomposition. Not
Supplier: CS.

SHANSI -- _Coriaria thymifolia._ Family Coriariaceae.
Material: Purple berries of frond-like shrub found in Andes and
of similar species (_C. japonica,_ _C. muscifolia_).
Usage: Berries are eaten. Active substances also in leaves.
Active Constituents: Cathecholic compounds, sesquiterpenes:
coriamyrtine, coriatine, tutine, and pseudotutine.
Effects: Stimulation, hallucinations, and sensations of flight.
Contraindications: Little known about this substance. Some
tribes regard it as toxic. Large doses may cause stupor, coma,
Supplier: Some nurseries carry related species.

SHICUICHI -- _Heimia salicifolia._ Family Lythraceae (Loosestrife
Material: Leaves of plant found in Mexico to Argentina.
Usage: Plucked leaves are allowed to wilt slightly, are crushed
in water (or liquefied in blender), permitted to ferment for 1 day in
the sun, and drunk. If fresh material is not available dried herb may
be steeped in hot water and allowed to sit in sun for 1 day before
drinking. Ten grams dried herb or equivalent of fresh leaves
suggested as starting dose.
Active Constituents: Cryogenine (1-carbamyl-2-phenylhydrazine),
an alkaloid.
Effects: Pleasant drowsiness, skeletal muscle relaxation, slowing
of heartbeat, dilation of coronary vessels, inhibition of
acetylcholine, enhancement of epinephrine, slight reduction of blood
pressure, cooling of body, mild intoxication and giddiness, darkening
of vision, auditory hallucinations (sounds seem distant), and
increased memory function.
Contraindications: No hangover or undesirable side effects.
Overindulgence causes golden-yellow tinge to vision on following day.
Continued immoderate use may eventually hamper memory.
Supplier: Must be procured in Mexico (Oaxaca marketplace).

SO'KSI -- _Mirabilis multiflora._ Family Nyctaginaceae (Four-o'clock
Material: Root of magenta-flowered perennial found at elevations
of 2500-5000 ft. on hillsides among rocks and shrubs throughout
aArizona, Utah, Colorado, and northern Mexico.
Usage: Large root is chewed and juice is swallowed. Used by Hopi
medicine men for diagnostic divination.
Active Constituents: Unidentified.
Effects: Hallucinogen.
Contraindications: None known. Root of similar species _M.
jalapa_ (four-o'clocks) may possess similar activity, but is also
powerful emetic.
Supplier: Viable seeds RCS. Plants found wild in southwest USA.
Caution: _M. multiflora_ has 2-5 flowers per calyx; _M. jalapa_ has
only one. _M. jalapa_ seeds, RCS, FM, NK, B, G.

SYRIAN RUE -- _Peganum harmala._ Family Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop
Material: Seeds of woody perennial native to Middle East. (Roots
also active but seldom used.)
Usage: 1 oz. seeds are thoroughly chewed and swallowed. Most
effective when combined with other psychotropic materials, especially
those containing tropanes.
Active Constituents: Harmine, harmaline, and harmalol.
Effects and Contraindications: Hallucinogen; see HARMINE et al.
Supplier: MGH (inquire).

THORNAPPLE -- _Datura inoxia_ Mill. Family Solanaceae (Potato
Material: Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, or seeds of short annual
herb found in dry open places and garbage dumps of Mexico and
southwestern USA.
Usage: Stems and leaves smoked to relieve asthma or produce mild
intoxication. Roots and seeds for divinatory uses. Root is crushed
in water and drunk. Leaves and seeds added to ganga (cannabis) in
India for extra effects.
Active Constituents: Scopolamine, atropine, hyoscyamine, and
other tropanes.
Effects: Hallucinogen and hypnotic.
Contraindications: Excessive amounts toxic. May cause blacking
out and severe headaches. Yaqui Indian brujos claims that smoking or
ingestion of flowers will cause insanity. See SCOPOLAMINE and
Supplier: Seeds, RCS. Other similar species include: _D.
fastuosa,_ _D. metel,_ _D. meteloides_ (toloachi), _D. stramonium_
(jimson weed). See also tree daturas, atropine, scopolamine.

TREE DATURAS -- _Datura,_ subgenius _Brugmansia_; includes _D.
candida,_ _D. suaveolens,_ _D. sanguinea,_ _D. arborea,_ _D. aurea,_
_D. dolichocarpa,_ _D. vulcanicola._ Family Solanaceae (Potato
Material: Various parts of short tree with drooping, fragrant,
trumpet-shaped flowers native to South America found in many gardens
throughout USA (especially California).
Usage: Leaves are sometimes smoked. Other parts brewed in hot
water. In Andes small amount of seed is pulverized and added to
beverages. Infusion given orally or rectally in adolescent ritual
among some western Amazon tribes.
Active Constituents: Scopolamine, hyoscyamine, norhyoscyamine,
and other tropanes.
Effects: Leaves similar to _D. inoxia._ Seeds cause mental
confusion, delirium followed by fitful sleep with colorful
Contraindications: More toxic than _D. inoxia._ Excessive
amounts may cause amnesia.
Supplier: Seeds of _D. arborea,_ _D. candida,_ and _D.
suaveolens,_ RCS. See also ATROPINE and SCOPOLAMINE.

L-TRYPTOPHAN -- 1-alpha-aminoindole-3-propionic acid.
Material: Amino acid essential to human nutrition.
Usage: 5-8 grams are ingested on empty stomach.
Effects: Drowsiness, euphoria, and mental changes similar to mild
(5 mg) dose of psilocybin.
Contraindications: Tendency to fall asleep. Excessive use could
cause dietary amino acid imbalance.
Supplier: CS, 500 mg tablets from some heatlh food stores.

WILD FENNEL -- _Foeniculum vulgare_ Mill. Family Umbelliferae (Carrot
Material: Oil from seeds of feathery-leafed weed bearing yellow-
green umbels with anise fragrance found in waste places of southern
Europe and west coast USA.
Usage: 5-20 drops of oil orally.
Active Constituents: Estragole (non-amine precursor of 4-
methoxyamphetamine [MA]).
Effects: Epileptic-like convulsions and hallucinations.
Contraindications: Epileptic syndrome is undesirable.
Constituents in the oil are toxic to liver and harsh to kidneys.
Normal amounts as used in flavoring are apparently safe;
hallucinogenic dosages may be disastrous.
Supplier: Grows wild. Seeds, MGH; viable seeds, RCS.

WILD LETTUCE -- _Lactuca virosa_ et al. Family Compositae (Sunflower
Material: Extractions from leaves and roots of weed native to
Usage: Materials are extracted in juicer, dried in sun or low
heat and smoked like opium.
Active Constituents: Lactucarium (lettuce opium) contains 2%
lactucin plus latucerol (taraxasterol) and lactucic acid.
Effects: Sedative similar to opium but less pronounced. Formerly
used in medicine as opium substitute.
Contraindications: Large quantities may be toxic.
Supplier: Viable seeds, RCS; dried leaves, MGH. Some lettuce
opium is also found in other _Lactuca_ species including market
lettuce, but amounts are usually insignificant.

WORMWOOD -- _Artemisia absinthium._ Family Compositae (Sunflower
Material: Leaves and stems of common herb.
Usage: Bitter essential oil is extracted into alcohol. Sometimes
combined with Pernod or anisette to make absinthe.
Active Constituents: Absinthine (a dimeric guaianolide),
anabsinthin, and a volatile oil mainly consisting of thujone.
Effects: Narcotic.
Contraindications: Excessive long-term use of liqueur may be
habit-forming and debilitating. Ingestion of volatile oil or liqueur
may cause GI disturbances, nervousness, stupor, and convulsions due to
Supplier: Dried herb MGH; viable seeds RCS.

YAGE -- (Pronoucned ya-hee; also called ayahuasca.) _Banisteriopsis
caapi._ Family Malpighiaceae.
Material: Lower parts of stem from vine found in Amazone and
Orinoco basins of South America.
Usage: Stem is pounded in mortar, usually with other local
psychoactive materials (mostly solanaceous plants), boiled in just
enough water 2-24 hours, strained, reduced to 1/10 volume. 4 oz. cup
is drunk by natives. Others should start with 1/4 this amount.
Active Constituents: Harmine, haraline, harmalol, and
tetrahydroharmine. Approximately 500 mg total alkaloids per 4 oz. cup
prepared as above.
Effects: Trembling within a few minutes followed by perspiration
and physical stimulation for 10-15 minutes, then calm with mental
clouding, hallucinations, increased color, blue-violet shades, size
changes, and improvide night vision. Harmala alkaloids are short-term
MAO inhibitors.
Contraindications: See HARMINE et al.
Supplier: MGH (inquire).

YOHIMBE -- _Corynanthe yohimbe._ Family Rubiaceae (Madder family).
Material: The inner bark of a tropical West African tree.
Usage: 6-10 tsp. of shaved bark boiled 10 minutes in 1 pt. water,
strained and sipped slowly. Addition of 500 mg vitamin C per cup
makes it take effect more quickly and potently (probably by forming
easily assimilated ascorbates of the alkaloids).
Active Constituents: Yohimbine, yohimbiline, ajmaline (indole-
type alkaloids).
Effects: First effects after 30 minutes (15 minutes with vitamin
C), warm, pleasant spinal shivers, followed by psychic stimulation,
heightening of emotional and sexual feelings, mild perceptual changes
without hallucinations, sometimes spontaneous erections. Sexual
activity is especially pleasurable. Feelings of bodies melting into
one another. Total experience last 2-4 hours. Aftereffects:
pleasant, relaxed feeling with no hangover. See YOHIMBINE.
Contraindications: Tannins and alkaloids make tea somewhat bitter
and unpleasant. Addition of honey may help. Slight nausea may be
experienced by some individuals during first 30 minutes. Vitamin C
lessens this. MAO inhibitor; see dangerous combinations. See also

Material: Yohimbine is one of several indole-based alkaloids
found in _Corynanthe yohimbe,_ _Rauwolfia serpentina,_ and several
other plants.
Usage: In hydrochloride form it may be either ingested or
snuffed. Dose 15-50 mg (amount size of 1 line of cocaine equals 10
Effects: Central stimulant, mild hallucinogen, sympathomimetic
with both cholinergic and adrenergic blocking properties, serotonin
inhibitor, hypotensive (decreases blood pressure), and activator of
spinal ganglis affecting erectile tissue of sexual organs
(aphrodisiac). Taken orally first effects occur after 15-30 minutes.
Snuffed first effects occur within 5 minutes. Initial effect may
include subtle psychic and perceptual changes, stimulation similar to
concaine, and warm spinal shivers. Total experience lasts 2-4 hours
gradually tapering.
Contraindications: If taken too close to bedtime may cause
insomnia. If taken while physically exhausted hypotensive properties
may be sharply exaggerated. Should not be used by persons with
ailment or injury of kidneys, liver, or heart, or inclination towards
diabetes or hypoglycemia. MAO inhibitor (see list of dangerous
combinations). Anxiety may also occur. Sodium amobarbitol or Librium
alleviate this. Imipramine may worsen it. Nauseau may occur from
ingestion of yohimbine, but is not likely when snuffed. Can result in
heart palpitations, severe blood pressure drop, and breathing
difficulties if taken within 48 hours of having taken any amphetamine,
even Dexamyl type diet pill.
Supplier: P, CS.



The companies listed here are straight, legitimate businesses. Their
function is to provide herbs, botanicals, or chemicals in general.
They do not expect that their products are to be used
psychotropically. Type your order, sound normal, do not ask questions
about dose, use, effects, etc. If they think that you are using their
products as drugs, they will probably refuse to do business with you.
If an item is not in their catalog inquire about its availability
before ordering it. Include stamped, self-addressed envelope with all
queries. Include 50 cents for postage and handling when requesting


AHD A. Hugh Dial, [Address removed because it is no longer valid], Yucca Valley, CA

B W. Atlee Burpee Seed Co.:
6450 Rutland, Riverside, CA
18th & Hunting Park Ave., Philadelphia, PA
615 N. 2nd, Clinton, IA


FM Ferry-Morse Seed Co.:
111 Ferry-Morse Way, Mountain View, CA
Stephen Beel Dr., Fulton, KY

G Germain's Inc., 4820 E. 50th, Vernon, CA 90058

GBR Gardens of the Blue Ridge, P.O. Box 10, Pineola, NC 28662

MGH Magic Garden Herb Co., P.O. Box 332, Fairfax, CA 94930

NK Northrop-King Seed Co.:
2850 South highway 99, Fresno, CA
1500 N.E. Jackson, Minneapolis, MN

NMCR New Mexico Cactus Research, P.O. Box 787, Belen, NM

P Paracelsus Inc., P.O. Box 93, Barrington, NJ 08007 (Supplies
a product called Yocaine. A 100 mg sample and information may
be obtained by sending $3 to their address.)

RX Available through prescription (formerly available through
chemical companies).

WP Wine and the People, P.O. Box 2914, Oakland, CA 94618



In earlier editions of _Legal Highs_ we gave the names of several
companies which seel various chemicals described in this book. Since
that time, government restrictions have tightened. These companies
have been ordered not to sell to individuals who are not part of an
established research laboratory. Whenever we have published the names
of suppliers of chemicals, the governmental authorities have made it a
point to contact these companies and emphasize these restrictions.
They are apparently not as concerned about herbs, plants, and seeds as
they are about chemicals.
Most the chemicals mentioned in _Legal Highs_ are available from
hundreds of chemical companies throughout the United States. To find
the ones which carry the substances you seek, look in the annual
listing entitled _Chemical Sources USA,_ which may be found in any
university library, or may be ordered from the publisher, Directories
Publications, Inc., Flemington, NJ. This directory has thousands of
chemicals and tells which companies handle each substance. Because of
the restrictions, it will be necessary to give the impression that you
are a professional researcher who is using these substances on
nonhuman subjects. It may be helpful if you have a letterhead printed
for your research group. Make your inquiries simply, soberly, and
discreetly. Good luck.


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Unless one is very experience in pharmacology, it is unwise to
experiment with combinations of drugs. Even when using a single drug,
thought should be given to all substances, both food and drug, which
have been taken recently. Most primitive people fast or at least
abstain from certain substances for several days prior to taking a
sacrament. Substances most universally avoided are alcohol, coffee,
meat, fat, and salt. Some drugs potentiate others. For example,
atropine will increase the potency of mescaline, harmine, cannabis,
and opiates. Many of the substances discussed in this book are MAO
inhibitors. MAO (monoamine oxidase) is an enzyme produced in the
body, which breaks down certain amines and renders them harmless and
ineffective. An MAO inhibitor interferes with the protective enzyme
and leaves the body vulernable to these amines. A common substance
such as tyramine, which is usually metabolized with little or no
pharmacological effect, may become dangerous in the presence of an MAO
inhibitor and cause headache, stiff neck, cardiovascular difficulties,
and even death. MAO inhibitors may intensify and prolong the effects
of other drugs (CNS depressants, narcotic analgesics,
anticholinergics, dibenzazepine antidepressants, etc.) by interfering
with their metabolism. In the presence of an MAO inhibitor, many
substances which are ordinarily nonactive because of their swift
metabolism may become potent psychactive drugs. This phenomenon may
create a new series of mind alterants. However, because of the
complex and precarious variables involved, it is risky and foolish for
anyone to experiment with these possibilities on the nonprofessional
The most commonly used MAO inhibitors include hydrazines, such as
iproniazid, Marsilid, Marplan, Niamid, Nardil, Catron; also non-
hydrazines such as propargylamines, cyclopropylamines, aminopyrazine
derivatives, indolealkylamines, and carbolines. MAO-inhibiting
materials discussed in this book include yohimbine; various
tryptamines, especially 5-MeO-DMT and the alpha-methyltryptamines; and
the various harmala alkaloids. The latter are especially potent
inhibitors, but, like yohimibine and the tryptamines, are short-
lasting in action (30 minutes to several hours). Some of the
commercial MAO inhibitors listed above are effective for several days
to several weeks.
Among the materials which may be dangerous in combination with MAO
inhibitors are sedatives, tranquilizers, antihistamines, narcotics,
and alcohol -- any of which can cause hypotensive crisis (severe blood
pressure drop); and amphetamines (even diet pills), mescaline,
asarone, nutmeg (active doses), macromerine, ephedrine; oils of dill,
parsely or wild fennel; beer, wine, cocoa, aged cheeses, and other
tyrosine-containing foods (tyrosine is converted into tyramine by
bacteria in the bowel) -- any of which can cause hypotensive or
hypertensive (severe blood pressure rise) crises.

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We uphold the right of the individual to do with itself what it
wishes, when it does not harm or transgress the rights of others.

We believe that it is better to grant people their natural right to
use upon themselves any substance they desire while supplying them
with factual information on use and misuse, rather than to attempt in
vain to curb abuse through legislation.

We are not children; nor are we stupid. As adult human beings we are
responsible for ourselves and have the right to make our own

Those who use the information in this book for personal
experimentation are offered the following advice:

1. Begin with doses below those given. If no undesirable side-
effects occur, gradual increases of dosage may be tried on
separate occasions until desired effect occurs.

2. Do not combine drugs unless you know what you are doing. See

3. Allow rest periods of at least one week between experiments.

4. When experimenting be relaxed, well rested, in good health, and
momentarily relieved of responsibilities.

5. Do not permit yourself to become dependent upon any of these
substances for relaxation, stimulation, etc. Seek your high in
health, love, and awareness. Learn techniques of yoga, tai chi,
etc., for relaxation. Employ meditation for consciousness


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